There is no shortage of products you’ll be able to promote. You’ll have the ability to pick and choose products that you personally believe in, so make sure that your campaigns center around truly valuable products that consumers will enjoy. You’ll achieve an impressive conversion rate while simultaneously establishing the reliability of your personal brand.
12. Avangate Avangate is a player in digital commerce that you may not be familiar with. Avangate, backed by a cloud platform, focuses on online commerce, subscription billing, and global payments for Software, SaaS and Online Services companies. More than 4000 digital businesses in over 180 countries trust Avangate including Absolute Software, Bitdefender, Brocade, FICO, HP Software, Kaspersky Lab, Telestream, Spyrix and CleverControl.
This is an interesting strategy because it goes beyond what the product is and dives into the various ways it can affect individuals in their daily lives. Banner advertisements are another great way to get people to click on and potentially purchase the product you’re selling through your site. Instead of being super flashy and distracting, banner ads could be as simple as the promoted products list that appears on your Facebook homepage. If you sell to more than one target market, consider finding a solution that helps you target ads based on factors such as where the consumer lives. This way, the ads on your site always have their best chance at finding an interested consumer.
As each state is different, I can only tell you about federal requirements in general. A limited liability company (LLC) is composed of members. When an LLC is composed of only one member, by default, it is disregarded for federal income tax purposes. This means the member will report all the activities of the LLC in Schedule C, just as a sole proprietor would, and attach Schedule C to the member’s personal income tax return, or Form 1040.
A well-tracked affiliate marketing program will provide a constant flow of data, so it’s up to your team to analyze and interpret it. For instance, is your current payout structure still appropriate? Would bonuses make sense? What is your typical customer acquisition cost for those who came in through affiliates? How about those customers’ lifetime values? Who else could you bring on to increase your network and continue incentivizing affiliates without hurting your margins? Answer these questions regularly to stay ahead of the game.
If you find that the psychology of crowds, social movements and how trends get started is interesting to you, Malcolm Gladwell’s The Tipping Point has several big interesting insights into how these things happen and the anatomy of social trends. A couple key points is that there are always ‘early adopters’ that spread the fire to a broader range of influencers who spread ideas and trends to the general public; ‘stickiness factors‘ such as association and aesthetics help things gain traction; and that context is key if something is going to catch on – it has to come at the right time and place.
Azam Marketing’s network enables advertisers to promote their products and services to over 325 million people via 29,000 affiliates, influencers, emailers and bloggers we have built relationships with since the 1990s. This includes the option of reaching out to millions of visitors, followers and subscribers via Azam Marketing’s internal websites, social media assets and opt-in email databases.

For those new to this powerful online merchandising concept, affiliate programs work as intermediaries between the affiliate marketers who will sell products and services and the merchant who provides those products and services as well as the affiliates programs.  Merchants work with affiliates to help get their products or services to their consumers.


Look internally rather than externally when trying to bring people on board with your affiliate approach. Marketing will obviously play a major role in keeping affiliates armed with content, but don’t stop there in setting up your internal support system. Identify key decision makers in your IT and financial departments to help move your affiliate program along. Bring in IT colleagues to assist with the tracking of affiliate codes and vetting of tech vendors, then direct the finance division to comb through monetary particulars such as structuring an appropriate commission payout schedule.
Cookie life (the time in which you get credit for an affiliate commission) are typically better than Amazon as well through other affiliate programs and networks. Some like Wealthy Affiliate, offer affiliates LIFETIME cookies, meaning you get a commission if someone goes through your affiliate link and joins at any time, forever. Compare this to shorter cycle cookies like Amazon (which are only 24 hours).
We have “Carefully” scoured through ALOT of the “Affiliate Networks” in hopes of adding the right content for our visitors. The trueth is; whether it be the least popular networks OR the top notch programs, they each have various conditions which will screw you from generating revenue. Adding their links and promoting their advertisers is nothing more than a waste of YOUR time and YOUR webspace if you don’t get paid to have them there sooo, don’t get in a hurry to join any affiliate programs until you read through their “Terms & Conditions” thoroughly and completely!

Look for a gravity score of 30 or more, because these products have a proven track record of selling well for a number of different affiliates. Products, especially new products, with gravity scores under 30 may work but are more risky. Gravity scores of greater than 100 mean the product’s popular. You could have competition, but don’t worry about that. The important thing is that there’s lots of demand.
Affiliate marketing may seem so easy but in fact, it has its challenges especially because it involves money. Challenges are present both for the ones recruiting affiliates (giving affiliate programs) and from the affiliates themselves. In this last part of the article, we will be enumerating to you the problems that involve in the whole affiliate marketing field or phase. You can also read event marketing plan templates.
Win-win-win. The advertiser wins because they only pay when a purchase is made (as opposed to the shotgun approach of paying to advertise to the masses and waiting for a small percentage to actually buy). The affiliate wins because they make money while providing helpful advice. The customer wins because they get a trusted recommendation for something they might not otherwise have known about.
Wow. Thank you for parting the mists of the mystery of affiliate marketing. I was drowning in vagueness and confusion for a few weeks there and now I feel like I have enough information to at least create a strategy around when I might want to start. I had no idea that it was so country-specific, which is important because I get just as many hits from European countries as I do the U.S.
And since everything is mobile nowadays, you can even run your business while you’re on your way to the office or during breaks. This means you don’t even need your own website to start affiliate you enjoyed this post, definitely check out the beginners guide to affiliate your email subject lines suck & what to do about t quick start guide: setting up profitable sales funnels. For example:It could also be an entire site that’s dedicated to finding cool products related to certain topic and promoting those affiliate products.
Clickbank is one of the most popular affiliate marketing program that deals with digital products such as eBooks. This website has been around for many years and is among the first affiliate websites on the internet. Another great thing about this site is that it lets all people from different occupations to sign up for a free account. Once you sign up for the account, you will have an access to millions of eBooks that other members are selling.  The quality of many of the items within the Clickbank affiliate program is debatable.  But, the commissions are far and above many of the others on this list and much of the reason it is rated highly within this article is history and ease of use.
Traffic can be generated from Facebook, Twitter or Instagram. Marketers can get an Ad Words account and work with providers like Taboola, Outbrain, Web Content, Adblade, AdSense or Bing. There are tracking packages like Click Tracker, Clickmagick, Voluum or ClickMeter. Autoresponder software may be required to get messages out and track interested buyers of your product.
One major disadvantage for an affiliate is the lack of control she has over the offer made to the customer, the sales page and the amount of commission earned. Super affiliates, those with a proven record of driving high-converting traffic, can negotiate preferential terms, but this option isn't open to the new affiliate. It is not unknown for merchants to cancel an offer without informing their affiliates, or to pay commissions late or not at all. Merchants may also make it a condition that the affiliate doesn't bid on specific paid search terms and some refuse to pay for any sales resulting from paid search advertising.
Affiliate marketing helps publishers get rewarded for the role they play in shopping journeys. If a publisher adds an affiliate link to a merchant in their content, they’ll receive a commission for every sale driven to that merchant as a direct result of someone clicking on the affiliate link. Publishers can add as many affiliate links to an article as they like, but they will need to build each individual link manually which can be time consuming.

Always fill out the comment box to “sell” your platform. If you are given the opportunity to explain why you are interested in a program, do it! Use the space to highlight why you would be an asset to the program. Talk about how your audience is their audience. Talk about the size of your mailing list (if it’s significant). Talk about your success with similar programs. Talk about where and how you will promote (hopefully you’ve done a bit of research so you know what they’re hoping for). Don’t sound desperate and certainly don’t lie about anything, but be upfront and honest about how this will be a win for them.
It’s all still so messy online now, and there are so many things yet to be resolved so far as law, order and sovereignty. But the foundations of how we will all interact in the future are being laid by e-comm now. And we still have some tech leap surprises to look forward to! Quantum computing for the masses, blockchain that doesn’t take so much time and energy to process. Many more things besides that may reshape online commerce.

New posts ended in early 2016 with the author stating that he was not going to carry on creating new content. After scanning through this blog we decided it was still worth an honourable mention for some of the posts and resources available. One key feature about this blog is that it was targeted at ‘paid traffic’ affiliates, so is a bit more niche than many of the other ones out there.
This will help you in checking the reporting and tracking the sales for any program you decide to promote. You also have the option of choosing from different companies that offer different products and services. These include things such as fashion accessories, health and beauty products, electronics and online services such as web hosting and much more.
Affiliate marketing is a commission-based income model, in which merchants reward affiliates for sending them customers. The term usually applies to online transactions, and affiliates are paid when the customer takes an action on the merchant's site. It's often suggested as a business plan for new Internet marketers, because it requires a very low capital outlay to get started. Affiliate marketing can provide a useful side income, but its weaknesses make it unsuitable as a core business model.

My advice for beginners – especially beginner bloggers with new sites – focus on your site content and traffic for a while, then add your Amazon links once you have a little traffic. So many beginners focus on making money from their links and sacrifice their content building in the process. Without good content and traffic you won’t make much anyways.
Be sure to check what kind of customer support you can expect from your affiliate program once you have signed up. Do your research online and if possible, speak to other sellers using the program to get their thoughts. Can you speak to someone via phone or Skype or do you have to wait 72 hours for email responses? Be clear on this because trust me, you will need support at one point or another. 
There’s something about reading books that has stood the test of time. In this marketing classic, Hopkins exposes the world to the idea that there are two veins of thought in marketing. The one he espouses and assures us is attainable, is quantifiable return on investment. Since the days of coupons, marketers have been using numbers to figure out whether their campaigns were effective. He shares with us ways to help your audience see the benefits more quickly such as using numbers and research, and making more specific claims over general ones in headlines, amongst other nuggets of advertising insight that stand the test of time.
Will my target audience realistically spend this amount for the product? Again, your reputation is on the line here. Is the product you are thinking of promoting priced reasonably for your audience? When I was writing my ebook, I was stuck on pricing. I asked around for opinions. A number of people suggested I price my ebook at $47! Their idea was to price according to value, not size. In my mind that was crazy. My network was composed of a lot of stay-at-home bloggers, and my collective audience was comprised mostly of people without a whole lot of disposable income. There was no way anyone was going to pay $47 for my 30-page ebook.
This will help you in checking the reporting and tracking the sales for any program you decide to promote. You also have the option of choosing from different companies that offer different products and services. These include things such as fashion accessories, health and beauty products, electronics and online services such as web hosting and much more.

A lot of people don’t realize this, but you can’t just become an affiliate – it’s a process that requires an application. Even once you’re part of an affiliate network, you’ll still need to apply for individual brands within those networks. There are times when you’ll be declined… usually there’s a reason why (lol like that time I applied to hundreds of clothing retailers in anticipation for all the packing lists that I still have not written). Other times, you’ll feel like a good fit and they’ll reject you anyway. That’s the way this cookie crumbles, so remember to put a little effort into your applications and really pick companies that fit your blog.
For example, the content on Super Weddings is useful whether you're organizing a wedding today or next year. All the content on the site is created accordingly. To make things easier for the audience, it is separated into categories to make it very convenient for the reader to find what they're looking for. This, of course, is also very good for SEO. 
Taking your blog from nothing to earning over $40,000 per month in just two years is no small feat but it’s exactly what blogger John Chow did. His blog which features daily (or more) updates, looks at a range of topics that could be of interest to the budding affiliate marketer including analysis of new ideas, SEO tips and tricks, and some affiliate program reviews.
Below is an overview of the industries that the Affiliate Marketing Website will operate within: Online Marketing Industry According to PriceWaterhouseCoopers 2010 report on aggregate internet marketing budget statistics, it is anticipated that internet marketing expenditures in the US will reach $70 billion dollars per year by 2011. Currently, internet marketing is a $50 billion dollar per year industry. Approximately 80% of this revenue is from keyword search advertising with the rest of the revenue generated from rich media, banners, classifieds, sponsorships, referrals, and email advertisements. This industry is expected to continue to grow as the numbers of businesses increase. The growth rate of the industry over the last five years has been well over 40% per year with this trend expecting to continue and then level off over the next five years. E-Commerce Sales Online retailers are expected to generate $115 billion dollars this year. The United States Economic Census indicates that over the next five years, 60% of the businesses in the United States will have an internet presence. In early 2010, industry reports estimate that 210 million people will have access to the internet with approximately 65% of these people having direct high speed internet access.
The products and services you will be promoting to your audience must be relevant and good quality. Make sure you believe in them and know everything about them, because this will be crucial to you delivering the sales pitch to your audience. You need to build trust with your audience so make sure the products and services you choose to promote are trustworthy enough. 
More Is More provides practical advice for building or improving customer experience that you can apply immediately at your own organization. Because time is of the essence, your customers are not willing to wait for you to get the customer experience right. This book shows you the invisible toxins that are killing your customer experience and your market share and how you should address them. More Is More sets you up for success, outlining the key areas you need to address immediately so you can weather external changes, remain relevant and thrive in the ever-changing business landscape.

Domain name – A domain name is the name of your website. It is the address internet users type in to access your site, instead of entering the numerical IP address. If you don’t have a hosting provider yet, you can get a free domain name with any of the shared hosting packages on BlueHost. If you already have hosting, you can purchase a domain a la cart for as low as $9 per year.
For those new to this powerful online merchandising concept, affiliate programs work as intermediaries between the affiliate marketers who will sell products and services and the merchant who provides those products and services as well as the affiliates programs.  Merchants work with affiliates to help get their products or services to their consumers.
As you begin the process of writing high-value content for your website visitors, you also need to keep in mind that you’re also writing for internet robots (actually, we call them spiders). Search engines need to know exactly what your page or post is about. We can help our websites rank well in search engines for our keywords by following some steps called “on-page SEO” where SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization.
Many site owners in affiliate marketing focus on keywords with high buyer intent. While that's not a bad strategy, it can present some risks. First, it’s important to have keyword diversity. Relying too heavily on one or two keywords can lead to your site being penalized by search engines. So, when you’re building links, be sure to vary the anchor text.

While Google has been the key driver of organic traffic and sales for affiliate marketers over the years, most now realize and understand the importance of Email Marketing in this business. Without a good email marketing strategy, relying on just Google is not the best strategy according to masters of the trade. That’s why we feature this all important course created by Bryan Guerra in this list. Having taught more than 80,000 students online, Bryan is the best guy to spill the beans on this subject. Let us find out what his course is all about.


Last week, I found out that all of my BuyCostumes.com links were dead (they are through CJ). When I contacted the affiliate mgr to ask why, her first response was this, “Hi Sandee, are you aware of tax nexus laws that have been passed in IL, CT, RI, NC and AR? Do you reside in any of these states?” I replied back that I live in IL and her second response was this, ” I’m so sorry. I had to terminate partnerships with IL affiliates as of June, 2011.” Then I emailed CJ to find out how I can tell which merchants within the network are still doing business in IL. Here’s the response I got, “If the advertiser accepted you, then that would generally mean that the advertiser has no problems with your state. You may always follow up with the advertisers directly, but them accepting you should generally be a good sign.”
Many people enjoy working with Rakuten Marketing because of their user-friendly interface. It is said to be a great benefit for beginners who are looking to get the hang of affiliate marketing. This is even more helpful because you’re likely to be working with more than one brand. Rakuten Marketing keeps all the important information and any other records in one place. If your audience is more specific, it’s going to be much easier to sell your products through Rakuten Marketing. Niche markets prefer to buy from smaller companies to help the whole community thrive. It’s a great contender to consider if that’s your current audience.

Amazon Associates — Amazon sells millions of products (books, music, electronics, toys, and more) that fit into virtually any niche, so its affiliate marketing program is a natural choice for almost anyone. Comparatively speaking, its payouts are generous, too: They vary based on product type and sales volume, but commission rates start at 4 percent and can reach up to 15 percent for specific product lines. However, note that Amazon’s program is now illegal in several states (although there are some work-arounds).

Not long ago, my company worked with a coupon system supplier that used an inefficient automated affiliate process. The business managed and tracked its affiliates somewhat but cut some internal players out of the process, which slowed down follow-through and caused most creation, distribution, and payments to be handled on a manual, as-needed basis.


This doesn’t mean you only sell one product. This means you build out a brand by selling varying yet adjacent products. Over time, your consumer network might consider you a go-to for which type of vacuum they should buy. Additionally, some industries pay more than others. Especially if the product is a harder sell, affiliates may get a higher cut than they would for a product in higher demand.

Hey Tiffany, how are you today? This is an excellent guide and I love all the information! It’s true many people who have blogs have no idea about affiliate marketing and it’s potential, but there is so much money to be made from affiliate marketing it’s unreal. One tip I could give is people who are building up blogs should get into affiliate marketing earlier! Great post, have a great day… thanks for the great information!


The advantages of the affiliate marketing business model for the affiliate are quite obvious to anyone. Having the opportunity to effectively ‘sell stock’ without having any of the costs or responsibilities of manufacturing, buying or storing it is very liberating. In addition to this, when working with a high-paying network like MoreNiche, the profit potential is enormous.
On-site Analytics (preferably Google Analytics) – It’s free and can be easily integrated with WordPress and other website platforms. Google Analytics lets you see bounce rates, sources of traffic, keywords used to land your site, and a whole lot more. You can use this information in developing your topics that your readers like best and improve traffic of your site.
This, is most likely one of the absolutely best courses on building amazon affiliate sites. Trust me, the explanations are extremely in-depth and understandable, I never had any experience in this field but I learned everything with ease and got to work right away thanks to the instructor’s very broad understanding of SEO. This is easily one of the top affiliate marketing courses and I realy thank the instructor for putting together such an amazing course, and sharing it with other people. If you want an A-Z explanation of amazon affiliate marketing, you will not be dissapointed by this course! – Beleuta Teodor
There’s something about reading books that has stood the test of time. In this marketing classic, Hopkins exposes the world to the idea that there are two veins of thought in marketing. The one he espouses and assures us is attainable, is quantifiable return on investment. Since the days of coupons, marketers have been using numbers to figure out whether their campaigns were effective. He shares with us ways to help your audience see the benefits more quickly such as using numbers and research, and making more specific claims over general ones in headlines, amongst other nuggets of advertising insight that stand the test of time.
Ah, my favourite section. SO, by now, you guys should know that I hate crappy advice. Wellll, I feel like the Internet really let me down with affiliate marketing, because there’s so many small considerations and details that people rarely mention in the beginner guides. SO, here are some sad truths to be wary of (that I had to learn the hard way):
Affiliate marketing is an ideal solution for those looking to gain control of their own income by focusing on performance-based revenue options. Working in tandem with a seller, a motivated affiliate marketer will be able to achieve a passive income from the comfort of their home without worrying about producing their own product or service. Although the success of the job does depend on the affiliate’s marketing skills, it can prove to be an effective way to meet your income goals as either a primary career or a profitable second job.
Glad it was helpful, Kimberly! Yes, from what I understand they use an affiliate program for 1-2 links in some cases. For example, I use scrapbook.com’s affiliate program for that one bunting how-to but I don’t really blog about my scrapbooking so that’ll probably be all I used it for. I was also concerned about having so many, but for old posts that still get a lot of traffic, it’s a good idea!
Absolutely wonderful post! I love how you’re striaght forward with all your information but my favorite is how you describe the way you feel when you make that first sale. It’s always a great feeling to see a return on your efforts. I’d just like to add how important it is to Never Ever give up! If you have any interest at all in being successful in this business (and it is a business) then treat it like one and plan, prepare and dedicate yourself. Don’t always focus on making millions, focus on what it will take to change your life. Most peoples lives would change with just an extra $50k a year!
Alot of ppl are still in the dark about this line of work. They still rely on their day jobs and unwilling to take a risk. Donald Trump took a risk by running for president. Why can’t other people who are unsure about Entrepreneurship lead by example and take a risk online in getting started in affiliate marketing and work from home? Truth is, most people are afraid of getting out of their emotional comfort zone and don’t want to explore the unknown. There’s a bundle of money to be made in this industry by faithful people who do the transformation business work and get started out of inspiration.
A well-tracked affiliate marketing program will provide a constant flow of data, so it’s up to your team to analyze and interpret it. For instance, is your current payout structure still appropriate? Would bonuses make sense? What is your typical customer acquisition cost for those who came in through affiliates? How about those customers’ lifetime values? Who else could you bring on to increase your network and continue incentivizing affiliates without hurting your margins? Answer these questions regularly to stay ahead of the game.
ClickBank allows you to join for free, and the approval process is virtually automatic, so it’s a great choice for people entering the affiliated game for the first time. ClickBank has a ton of information, including FAQs, walk-throughs, and videos available, so the barrier to entry is quite low. There’s also a (paid) program called ClickBank University with courses and assistance from experienced marketers.
Luke Kling started blogging in 2004 and is now the Affiliate Manager for PeerFly, Inc. PeerFly is an affiliate ad network that uses custom-built software. His blog is separate from PeerFly, Inc. but it still provides more than enough advice for affiliate marketers. For example, Luke has created The Affiliate Marketing Guide that shares tips on getting started and how to successfully run marketing campaigns on Facebook.
This book is perfect for a complete beginner. It shows you all the methods needed to get you started. Keep in mind that if you are an experienced affiliate marketer, this book probably won't provide you with a whole lot of information you didn't already know. However, if you're like me, and you're ready to start slowly dipping into the world of affiliate marketing, then this book is absolutely for you! 

Decide how you'll promote the affiliate products. As mentioned, the easiest way is through a website or blog. Other successful affiliate marketers set up a squeeze page designed to build an email list, and then promote affiliate products to subscribers. Of course, your list should provide other non-sales information as people don't want to be sold all the time. Some affiliate marketers don't use a website at all, and instead use social media such as Facebook, Instagram or Twitter. Many affiliate marketers use a combination of several marketing tactics.
Why should you read this book? This New York Times bestseller explores how people can best champion new ideas. Using research and stories from business, politics, sports, and entertainment, the author shows you how to recognize a good idea, how to build a coalition of allies, how to choose the right time to act and how leaders can build cultures at their organizations that welcome dissent. This book shows that by fighting groupthink, your organization can become even more successful. The author provides insights about how to reject conformity and how to improve the status quo.
Also referred as Commission Junction, CJ is a large affiliate network offer affiliate programs for a wide range of popular and well-established organizations. This program acts as the intermediary between the merchants who will provide the products to sell and the affiliates who will do the marketing. This program is very advantageous as it provides very many affiliate programs at the same place.

Decide how you'll promote the affiliate products. As mentioned, the easiest way is through a website or blog. Other successful affiliate marketers set up a squeeze page designed to build an email list, and then promote affiliate products to subscribers. Of course, your list should provide other non-sales information as people don't want to be sold all the time. Some affiliate marketers don't use a website at all, and instead use social media such as Facebook, Instagram or Twitter. Many affiliate marketers use a combination of several marketing tactics.


This is my first comment on your blog and I am really impressed by the quality of the content! You said that Amazon is famous but it’s complex and I agree with you upon that. As a beginner, I don’t think it’s a good idea to join complex affiliate programs. I recently published an infographic about affiliate marketing sats (https://www.earnyfy.com/affiliate-marketing-stats-2016) amazon was not the list of top affiliate networks used by affiliate marketers. I think Clickbank is good for the beginner. And another I think liked is that telling people that it’s not as easy as it sounds. Most people think making money is really and when they know the truth they call it a scam and give up.
It seems nowadays many bloggers are obsessed with this monetization stream, clamouring to find out how they, too, can make money off blogging through affiliate sales. This popularity has led to one very negative consequence: information overload, and not enough answers. After a few email exchanges, I realized some newbies were petrified of asking basic questions… in fear of sounding dumb.
In this article, we will be explaining to you what is an affiliate and what affiliate marketing is. Next, we will be discussing the ways on how to be a successful affiliate marketer so that one can earn a passive income more than what was expected of him or her.  Even if affiliate marketing seems to be beneficial, it also has some challenges. Well, everything that involves money has challenges.

I was recently looking into this and came across a few videos online. There was this guy who said you can make commissions in under a week. I dont know if thats true but wanted to know if hes genuine or a scammer. This is the video he said it in: https://youtu.be/7sN6U73pZr0 . If not then who would you recommend for learning this stuff as it seems so confusing for me!
Shopify is a very popular site building platform for people interested in building eCommerce stores. It has been around for the past few years and seen significant growth in its user base over this time. You can earn a staggering 200% per sale for every new customer you refer to them, which means that there is up to $2400 per new customer on offer.
The Content Formula answers the biggest question currently on marketer’s minds: what is the ROI of content marketing? This book provides a step by step guide for marketers, and is divided into three parts: how to build the business case for content marketing, how to find the budget to establish a new content marketing program, and how to measure content marketing success in business terms. With unused and wasted content costing B2B marketers alone a whopping $50 billion a year, the time to take a step back and identity problem areas is now so departments can focus on the areas that yield the most benefit to the bottom line. The Content Formula establishes a way for marketers to prove the exact return on investment they get from content marketing, highlighting its usefulness in any marketer’s toolbox.
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