Affiliate marketing pulls together marketers who want to advertise and publishers, sometimes called influencers, who want to promote products and services and get paid to do so. Publishers place customized links to things they want to promote within their website or social media content. Then, they get a portion of the sales as a thank you for their promotion.

By quite a large margin Amazon has the largest affiliate marketing program out there, with products from more than 1.5 million sellers. Amazon has the most easy-to-use technology of all the affiliate programs I will be reviewing today. Beginners to affiliate marketing with even the most limited technical expertise will have no problems in getting up and running with the Amazon associates program, while more experienced marketers can create custom tools and websites with the APIs and advanced implementations available to them. The great thing about Amazon is that anything from kids toys to laptops can generate sales if they are purchased through any Amazon affiliate link.
Not promoting the right products is a common issue with newbie affiliates. Would you purchase the product you are promoting through a website? Think about it. You can advertise a Ford dealership on your website until the cows come home, but will anyone seriously purchase a brand new car via a website without visiting a garage? I don’t think so. Don’t market cars, houses, wedding venues, perfume or dogs online. Do market products people will actually buy from a website without seeing them in the flesh!
As for me, I ran a bloggy b-card series where I tackled everything from what to put on a business card to a giant showcase of awesome cards I received at Type A. On that showcase, I listed a few places you can buy cards and a few of those links were affiliates. Based on what I learned from this session, I went back to the other four posts and added those links there too. Since then, I’ve also created a hub page with all the posts and places to buy cards in one place.

These customers can directly go to the business websites and buy whatever they want. But some times the said customers who frequently visit a particular blog and that particular blog are an affiliate marketer for a business which at that particular time is giving some form of discount. Now this discount or free trial will attract the customer to click/buy through the link provided on the affiliate marketer’s web page.  The customer who might not be aware that there is a discount on a particular product is enticed to buy and complete the process.
Affiliate marketing has now invaded Hollywood? We know it invaded US politics in Washington as some politicians (current and retired) are silent affiliate marketers or in MLM. Maybe we can look forward to hearing in the next few years about more celebrities going from actors and actresses to home-based affiliate marketers. Wouldn’t that be something?
With website builders, you get what you pay for. While they have plenty of free templates, more professional-looking websites will always cost more money. However, this investment could be worth it, especially as a website is one of the few startup costs for affiliate marketers. The social media profiles you develop are dependent on your niche and target market.

This book has many similarities to Seth Godin’s books and also is like a deep dive into Malcolm Gladwell’s “stickiness factors.” Two key principles that stick out are that people will share your content if it makes them look good and that if you build your product or service around a ‘trigger,’ you’ll receive a bump in traffic and/or sales every time they encounter that trigger. A terribly effective reminder is Rebecca Black’s song “Friday” which gets a bump in traffic on a certain day of the week, every week years after its initial release.
Unfortunately, the 2Checkout dashboard is a bit limited in scope, making it difficult to get any metrics on conversion rates or even sorting by commission payouts. The workaround is to go to the Avangate store, which does list their best-selling products, and then search for these on the affiliate dashboard. That being said, 2Checkout does offer products from more than 4,000 different vendors, making it the leading affiliate network for software and digital products.
As one business leader notes, his company’s affiliate marketing program wouldn’t have continued to hit higher and higher goals without consistency and data analysis. Each time his marketing team reached out to new and existing affiliates, they examined the results and adjusted approaches. Their data-driven diligence led 18 percent of their target affiliates to sign on.
In the BigCommerce affiliate program, you receive a 200% bounty per referral and $1,500 per Enterprise referral, with no cap on commissions. Plus, the more referrals you drive through the program, the higher your commission tier will go. BigCommerce uses an industry leading 90-day cookie, so you will receive credit for up to three months for the referrals you generate. Also, there are no obligations or minimum commitments to join the program.
Well written article, I have learned new affiliate networks, that I didn’t have knowledge about. Affiliate marketing is one of the best ways to make big money online. Many people try it, but give up when sales don’t come, in my opinion, achieving success in affiliate marketing requires you to choose the right networks to promote, and have patience. Simple advice should be not to try to promote everything you come across, do research and test to find out what works best. Thanks for sharing this great article.
It is real challenging the mind to go beyond our limit. One crucial but encouraging sign is about algorithm. Where and what the stand of algorithm with new influx of raw keywords against current 1st to 3rd level "keywords". SEO is becoming sea of data but full of different small, medium, and big opportunity and possibility. Ads, niche, and authority marketing now have their own designated "basketball", "football", "soccer", and "baseball" system and structure in every level of "MLS' and "USL", "National", "Conference", and "College" divisions. Money according to the different "tiers" and "fans" or "attendance" but different in traffic behavior.

If you take a $15 clock like the one above, you sell it for $30, you double your money. This is a logic that has been in place, but where the "brand" isn't as sensitive (like a generic clock), you are going to see more opportunities in this space. There is much more administration and costs associated with accepting payment, dealing with returns, and managing product support. But accepting payment and hosting a store on your website through plugins like WooCommerce can be a great opportunity.
VigLink works a bit differently than other affiliate programs in that it is specifically designed for bloggers. Instead of affiliates picking and choosing which merchants to work with, VigLink uses dynamic links that automatically change to work with merchants that VigLink has determined are offering the highest conversation rates and/or commissions at any given moment. 

Affiliate marketer or a publisher who is an individual who will publish the advertisement on his web page blog and advertise the product for the business. His remuneration for advertising the product solely depends on the how he can push his webpage or blog further. How famous he is or what topics he blogs about and well-known his blog will determine how many people will visit his site. He gets commission for marketing the product if the person visiting his site either clicks or buys the product depending on the agreement between him and the business.


Shopify is probably the most popular e-commerce solutions provider out there, but because there are so many products and options, newcomers can easily get confused. If you believe your audience has products to sell and could benefit from Shopify’s products and are able to elucidate the benefits of signing up for Shopify, you can definitely earn some big money with their affiliate program.
Rakuten Linkshare is one of the oldest affiliate partner networks that is gaining popularity very fast. To wade off competition as well as making it user-friendly, the platform come with some distinctive features. One of these features includes rotating different banner ads for specific products, making it easier to administer and optimize in the long run. Instead of having to select the ad, you would want to run on your blog manually; that will let multiple versions of ads rotate with a small piece of code.
Great tips! Since I just started blogging in January I am still really just getting my toes wet in affiliates. However, I did notice that pictures and real life demonstrations of the product really help. For instance, I have several food posts where I talk about my favorite cook books and show what I have cooked out of them, and then included amazon links, sure enough I sold a few cook books.
If you worry that your readers won’t like the fact that you’re making money, I encourage you to shift your paradigm on this a bit. If someone provided valuable information to you, wouldn’t it be nice to reward them a bit? Maybe they taught you something. Maybe they saved you time for not having to search for the information themselves. Maybe they showed you some great uses for a product you were considering buying anyway. Whatever the case, if you’re providing affiliate links in an ethical way, no one should fault you for it.
Shopify has three different account types as well as standalone third-party products like themes and apps. Commissions are paid for sales of any of these products, including users who sign up for a 14-day free trial and then convert to a paid account. Shopify also has a wide range of blog posts, webinars, and video tutorials that can be linked to with the standard commission paid on any sales that are generated.

This book is a new entrant in our top 10 book list. The book teaches you to learn making money with affiliate marketing and become a successful marketer from scratch. You’ll learn how to create content and drive traffic using free and paid methods. The new book is the No. 1 bestseller on the topic while I was updating this page. A recommended read!
Fundamentals of digital marketing by Puneet Singh Bhatia is a must read for the people engaged in the field of marketing, using digital platforms. Concepts are explained in a way that anyone who wishes to grasp about the digital world can do so by simply reading this book. I highly recommend this book to marketing professionals because digital is a new way of marketing and is going to emerge and transform magnificently due to technological advancements in the near future.
Why should you read this book? This 300-page book shows you how to use digital marketing to grow your organization, increase audience engagement, and acquire new customers. This useful marketing book covers the customer journey, marketing strategy and planning, landing pages, blogging, search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), social media, digital advertising, email marketing, and analytics.
In short, both the affiliate marketer and the merchant will benefit in this program as the merchant will sell more goods and the affiliate marketer will get a commission for every product bought through his/her website.  Many affiliate marketers earn a nice monthly income from selling other peoples’ products!  Later, YOU TOO could be producing your very own products and collaborating with one of the top 10 affiliate programs below to enlist an army of bloggers and website owners to help you become financially free.
Use your personal words & experience with the product. Your own content, or photos & videos of yourself using the product are always the most effective. For example, many affiliate programs provide swipe copy to their affiliates which is pre-written emails, post material or social media posts. These can be helpful as a guide, but they often scream swipe copy, aren’t written in your voice (the one your readers know!) and if a lot of affiliates are using it, are overdone.
Despite its older origins, email lists are still a viable source of affiliate marketing income. Some affiliates have email lists they can use to promote the seller’s products. Others may leverage email newsletters that include hyperlinks to products, earning a commission after the consumer purchases the product. Another method is for the affiliate to cultivate email lists over time. They use their various campaigns to collect emails en masse, then send out emails regarding the products they are promoting.
Thanks Nathalie! And glad to see you came over from AONC 🙂 When done the right way I think affiliate links in context are much less intrusive and offensive than having ads on your sidebar. The average non-tech reader probably wont even know its an affiliate link anyway. So just by doing everything you’ve already been doing, you can switch out links, and probably make a nice side income!
I want to help you get started in affiliate marketing and I want to do it for free. If you sign up for this affiliate marketing e-course, by next week, you will have a rock solid affiliate marketing business model, a full website blueprint, and a roadmap for how to achieve success in this industry. From there, the rest is up to you. At the very least, I can help you lay the foundation and get started.

Write down the types of people who like the products you have chosen to market. This is your target market. Women will be more interested in fashion or jewelry than teenage boys for example, but younger newly married women may be more interested in baby or family-oriented products instead. Write down as many details as you can for your target market because being able to speak to them on their level through your publishing and advertising efforts is critical to a successful affiliate business.
That being said, LinkConnector’s platform looks and feels outdated and is rather clumsily designed. Their dashboard also makes it difficult to find “hot” products or compare conversion rates, leaving affiliates somewhat in the dark about which products to choose. Ironically, despite their low-quality website, they offer some of the best customer service in the affiliate space.

The network is, again, contested by some as to whether it’s truly a part of the affiliate marketing conglomerate. But for good measure, we’ll discuss it. The network is essentially the middle man used to manage this exchange. The network helps accomplish such tasks as payment processing, tracking technology, reporting solutions, and can serve as a repository of available affiliates.


In the blogging world it’s common to hear other bloggers talking about ways to make income. One of those ways is by using affiliate links. An affiliate link is a link with a tracking code; when a person clicks on that link and buys the product you get a commission on that purchase. Affiliate links are a great way to make passive income (see how much I make with affiliate income per month.)
URL masking: Often, you’ll find that affiliate links are a real, million character eyesore. It’s likely that your links will look like Merchant.com/dlfjlfjlfjdskljdfgimmeallyourmoneyalajdlkaf2131032klfjfdjldsjf. And let’s be honest, few people are going to want to click on that. URL masking is therefore when you create a prettier, cleaner “vanity URL” that makes your links more clickable. Some people use bit.ly, which has tracking purposes, or the WordPress Plugin Pretty Link.
Next, define the architecture of your information on your blog. Decide what categories you need to include on it and what tags are necessary. However, back it up with solid research first so that categories and tags are not a mere result of your expectations and preference, but they correspond to your primary keywords and follow your content strategy.
Don’t go overboard, but have a couple of items that are relevant to your niche. Whether these are ebooks or software packages, your readers have broad based needs within your niche so you should appeal to every aspect of their need. Click on the “Gravity” or “Network Earnings” options on the affiliate network for stats on what products are selling the best.
There are several types of affiliate programs. Most will pay you a flat rate or percentage of the sale you make (pay-per-sale). Another common type is when you're paid per action or lead. For example, if you refer someone who signs up for businesses free trial, the business pays you for the sign-up. Although not seen as often anymore, some will pay you per click (this is seen most in contextual ad programs such as Google Adsense) or per impression (each time the ad is loaded on your website). 

The actual process of ensuring that affiliate links are being implemented by the publishers alongside adequate tracking methods is crucial to an affiliate marketing campaign. We investigate how much effort is placed into the process of acquiring affiliates and advertisers. In addition, we find it important to understand how much time is spent by the affiliate marketing company in creating strategic campaigns for their affiliates.

Affiliate Marketing Splash: How to Build Affiliate Sites that Rank (and bank): Internet Marketing through Search Engine Optimization, this book dives into both of the important categories of affiliate marketing. Learning the foundations of affiliate marketing; niche research, keyword research, website creation. You also get to learn the foundations of search engine optimization, which is essential for creating quality affiliate marketing opportunities. Great deal for only $4.99.
They Ask You Answer is a straightforward guide to fixing your current marketing strategy. Regardless of your budget, you are almost certainly overspending on television, radio, and print ads, yet neglecting the number-one resource you have at your disposal: the Internet. Content marketing is no longer about keyword-stuffing and link-building; in fact, using those tactics today gets your page shuffled to the bottom of the heap. Quality content is the key to success, and you already have the ingredients in-house. This book shows you how to structure an effective content strategy using the same proven principles that have revolutionized marketing for all types of businesses, across industries.
I was looking for great affiliate networks and wanted to know that which are the top 10 marketing networks. Then I read complete article. I was amazed to see that ClickBank ranks 1st among top 10 affiliate marketing networks. I’ve bookmarked this and want to read all other posts but due to time shortage I couldn’t But I’ll come daily to read every post one by one. Thanks admin for sharing such a great post with us.

Sure, you’re not the brand itself, but you are employed by various brands, and I’m sure you want to see success in this industry. For that reason, it’s important you take control and learn about your audience while trying to form connections. Take cues from your competitors or other affiliates. What kind of advertisements are they utilizing, and do they seem to be working?
The actual process of ensuring that affiliate links are being implemented by the publishers alongside adequate tracking methods is crucial to an affiliate marketing campaign. We investigate how much effort is placed into the process of acquiring affiliates and advertisers. In addition, we find it important to understand how much time is spent by the affiliate marketing company in creating strategic campaigns for their affiliates.
Be affiliated with a company or business that you are actually interested in.Get into using a lot of several traffic sources to advertise and promote the company or businesses’ products or services. You can also like sample real estate marketing plans.Measure and test your affiliate campaign of the product or services.Be a researcher and look at how much the product or service is being demanded by the market.Be knowledgeable of current trends that have been successful in getting consumers to buy certain products from affiliates. You may also see strategic marketing plan templates.Create great content for your website where you promote the product.
The fit must be right between you and the merchant who is going to benefit from your promotional efforts, or it simply won’t work. The easiest way to begin with affiliate marketing is to select an affiliate network. Many affiliate networks exist, some which are tied to well-known companies like Amazon, Google, and Apple, while others specialize in specific types of products and services.
This means that you have to create a suitable simple business plan to help you get the product to the intended audience. But, i believe that an affiliate marketing guide needs to include networks, because, in many cases, a network works as an intermediary between the affiliate and the you could technically promote an online course someone has created and just arrange a direct revenue share with them, letting a network such as clickbank or commission junction handle the payment and product delivery puts a more serious note on your affiliate mes, affiliates have to go through an affiliate network to even be able to promote the product. Of course, money is likely a major reason you’re in business, so getting this right is create a solid financial plan, there are two tips you should keep in mind:Be realistic with your projections.
Mr. Doe is seeking to raise $150,000 from as a bank loan. The interest rate and loan agreement are to be further discussed during negotiation. This business plan assumes that the business will receive a 10 year loan with a 9% fixed interest rate. The financing will be used for the following: • Development of the Company’s online car website platform. • Financing for the first six months of operation. • Capital to purchase servers, computers, and related technology Mr. Doe will contribute $25,000 to the venture.
You can make really good commissions from the eBay partner but it depends on the products which you decide to promote. Interestingly the commission levels vary according to where you are in the world not just on the products you decide to promote. One of the great reasons to sign up is that you can earn DOUBLE commissions in your first three months. They offer free to use link generators, ad creatives and widgets for you to promote different eBay items. eBay has over 162 Million active buyers which means there is a great potential to convert your traffic.
You're preaching to the choir. I totally agree with you. But for some reason some people just want to dive into ecommerce without understanding that without understanding the other fundamental SEO and marketing principles taught here for affiliate marketing sites, their ecommerce site is likely to fail unless they can invest in the paid traffic sources you mentioned.
Impact Radius' global performance marketing platform is disrupting traditional affiliate network models, empowering marketers and agencies by providing the technology to track and optimize partnerships. This is unique in the affiliate space because it allows brands to align programs with their own business objectives and gain unique insights into the value of each partnership. Impact Radius' technology also allows marketers to capture and analyze results across all marketing channels to intelligently optimize marketing spend. With this kind of vision, it's no surprise that Impact Radius recently secured $30 million in growth funding from Silversmith Capital Partners.
Okay, I’ll be honest, when I first started out, I found it surprisingly difficult to understand how to even generate links (and deep links). For a while, I legitimately thought I was stupid. In hindsight, stupidity may have been a small part of the cause, but the truth is the process is actually pretty confusing. SO, I’ve written some pretty boring (though helpful) step-by-steps on how to generate links on a few common programs and affiliate networks… So, for my fellow life-dummies, here’s:

Don’t let your imaginative ideas about how to get the word out about a product or service be limited simply by what everyone else is doing for marketing tactics. Give yourself permission to try out of the box strategies. Examples include; ‘green graffiti’ where brands have pressure washed their message into dirty sidewalks, and Unicef’s (who helps people in third world countries get clean water) idea to sell bottles of ‘dirty water’ from a vending machine. Whether you’re just looking for some examples to get your mind moving, or specific tactics, Guerilla Marketing may help you knock the dust off of your creative thinking hat.


Hi Christina. I have been looking for answers about how to start affiliate through a travel blogging for more than 3 weeks and this post shined a light for me. Thank you! I still have a question about how and when to start applying to affiliate programs. I just opened my travel blog last week and had only 2 posts. Off course I have no established traffic and posts yet. I want to use affiliate links to start writing about reviews of hotels and places where I have visited, but I know my blog won’t be accepted by advertisers because I don’t have enough contents. I also took Michelle’s course and one of the chapters said to start affiliate marketing as soon as possible, but I don’t know how would you be accepted by advertisers at very very beginning?? Should I forcus on writing more posts first? And how many would be adequate to start applying to programs? Thank you for reading. Your blog is very helpful!!
It was really a good post. Very detail information and described well. I have started my own with Amazon and also put there as shop for baby products from amazon. I am clear about my target customers but I don’t know how to reach them and from where to start. I have put my effort in the site and review but now need a through for my site. My site is about Barbie Dream House With Elevator usually kids like with and along with that all barbie products are also available and also baby products, health product are available in there program with Amazon. Anyone can visit and see that in https://www.barbiedollsdreamhouse.com

Once you've protected your prospecting pool, maximize your affiliate program by working with the best and leaving the rest. As the old 80/20 adage implies, most of your revenue will come from a very small percentage of your affiliates. Because it can be time-consuming to manage a larger affiliate network, consider selecting only a few companies initially, and interview them before signing them on. Affiliates are an extension of your sales force and represent your online brand, so choose partners carefully.

ClickBank is known for handling the affiliate programs of digital products like ebooks, software and even membership sites. So if you wish to promote toys, clothing, or other products on your website, ClickBank wouldn’t be the most appropriate network to join.Amazon Associates continue to be the choice of people new to affiliate marketing, since Amazon has thousands of products readily available at any given time.


It’s only my newness to the industry, that makes me realize there is still so much, I do not understand. When you speak about Sears and Toys R Us going out of business, it helps me realize again how affiliate marketing fits into the complete picture and helps me make sense of my niche again and how it is really possible to be in a situation of benefitting others and on so many different levels.
What do many successful businesses and leaders have in common? They’re the first names that come to mind when people think about their particular industries. How do you achieve this level of trust that influences people to think of you in the right way at the right time? By developing habits and strategies that focus on engaging your audience, creating meaningful relationships, and delivering value consistently, day in and day out…..
I have to agree, the online shopping experience is going to evolve, at the rate of knots, a trend that I am noticing is that folks are becoming so comfortable with shopping online and across the generation divides, this combined with the distribution networks and payments gateways that have evolved around the Chinese manufacturing phenomenon there will be exciting times ahead for all that create legitimate online businesses .
If you succeed, it will be because you were able to do something most people can’t do, which is having the patience to put in lots of hard work now in order to have that pay off (hopefully) later on. I can promise you, it is so worth it. It took me 2 years from the time I first started blogging to now earning a passive six-figure income as I travel the country.
Once you've protected your prospecting pool, maximize your affiliate program by working with the best and leaving the rest. As the old 80/20 adage implies, most of your revenue will come from a very small percentage of your affiliates. Because it can be time-consuming to manage a larger affiliate network, consider selecting only a few companies initially, and interview them before signing them on. Affiliates are an extension of your sales force and represent your online brand, so choose partners carefully.
For example, the content on Super Weddings is useful whether you're organizing a wedding today or next year. All the content on the site is created accordingly. To make things easier for the audience, it is separated into categories to make it very convenient for the reader to find what they're looking for. This, of course, is also very good for SEO. 
The Market Health Affiliate Program allows you to market and promote the world’s leading health and beauty offers online. We offer the highest paying affiliate program and best tracking software in our industry. If you have a web site and are interested in making money off the explosive sales in the health and beauty industry, then MarketHealth.com is perfect for you. Offers include products in the health, beauty, supplement, weight loss, and skin care industries.
This is the standard affiliate marketing structure. In this program, the merchant pays the affiliate a percentage of the sale price of the product after the consumer purchases the product as a result of the affiliate’s marketing strategies. In other words, the affiliate must actually get the investor to invest in the product before they are compensated.
As a result, we’re at the cusp of a major shift in the way businesses are managed and governed – moving from a focus solely on lagging, internal data, toward analyses that also encompass industry-wide, external data to paint a more complete picture of a brand’s opportunities and threats and uncover forward-looking insights, in real time. Tomorrow’s most successful brands are already embracing Outside Insight, benefitting from an information advantage while their competition is left behind.
We helped the company backtrack and fill in its procedural gaps so it could fully customize each affiliate’s experience without duplicating services, leading to sizable growth within about two months. Staff members can provide top-notch advocacy for a brand. Use that familiarity to get staff members aligned with your affiliate approach in order to stabilize your campaign’s foundation.
Asif Razzaq is a Digital Health Business Strategist with robust medical device and biotech industry experience and an enviable portfolio in development of Health Apps, AI, and Digital Marketing. An astute entrepreneur, Asif has distinguished himself as a startup management professional by successfully growing startups from launch phase into profitable businesses. This has earned him awards including, the SGPGI NCBL Young Biotechnology Entrepreneurs Award.
The fact that they sell anything means anyone can make money with affiliate marketing. You can make money selling to people who are into teapots, doll collecting or expensive watches. There are so many products to promote, the possibilities are endless here. The second important reason to sell with Amazon when you’re a beginner is that Amazon is a trusted brand; it’s a brand that is known worldwide. Just about any American has ordered one thing or another through Amazon by now. The fact that it’s a known and trusted brand is important if you’re looking to learn and not worry if you will get screwed over. Amazon’s terms for sale are really good, too. If you send someone to Amazon and they purchase a product right away, you’ll get paid the commission. If the customer doesn’t buy right away, you will have 24 hours to make money off a sale. And, if a customer adds the product to their cart, they have 30 days to purchase it for you to make a commission off the sale. Once again, that’s fantastic.
Affiliates should also be careful about who they endorse and why. This is especially true at the beginning when it will seem like the right move to say ‘yes’ to any potential partner. But selling or endorsing a problem just for money will may cause your audience to lose respect for you. The same could be said for selling too many products, or for endorsing a product that has a tarnished reputation.
They Ask You Answer is a straightforward guide to fixing your current marketing strategy. Regardless of your budget, you are almost certainly overspending on television, radio, and print ads, yet neglecting the number-one resource you have at your disposal: the Internet. Content marketing is no longer about keyword-stuffing and link-building; in fact, using those tactics today gets your page shuffled to the bottom of the heap. Quality content is the key to success, and you already have the ingredients in-house. This book shows you how to structure an effective content strategy using the same proven principles that have revolutionized marketing for all types of businesses, across industries.

Be sure to check what kind of customer support you can expect from your affiliate program once you have signed up. Do your research online and if possible, speak to other sellers using the program to get their thoughts. Can you speak to someone via phone or Skype or do you have to wait 72 hours for email responses? Be clear on this because trust me, you will need support at one point or another. 
The products and services you will be promoting to your audience must be relevant and good quality. Make sure you believe in them and know everything about them, because this will be crucial to you delivering the sales pitch to your audience. You need to build trust with your audience so make sure the products and services you choose to promote are trustworthy enough. 
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