An affiliate marketing business can produce a few hundred dollars in commissions each month or tens of millions of ’s where the marketing happens. This can then be used to further your business, including the reassessment and modernization of your goals as time goes of the above are enough on their own to make a plan for your affiliate business worth it. An affiliate promotes one or multiple affiliate products and tries to attract and convince potential customers of the value of the merchant’s product so that they actually end up buying can be achieved by running a review blog of the merchant’s products.
LongTail Pro has proven to be an indispensable asset when it comes to keyword research for me and my colleagues.I personally have been using the service for a while now, and have found over time that the data it gives around keywords tend to be more accurate than the other keyword tools on the market. I also introduced the LongTailPro to my colleagues who previously had been using other solutions, and now they absolutely swear by it! It is the go-to tool for keyword research at our agency. I highly recommend it.
I honestly think some of us just have non-buying audiences. Some of that may be a matter of how or what we write but some of it might just be the niche. There are some niches that seem to just go hand-in-hand with spending money — home décor, for instance. My niche is largely broke moms from large, single-income families. They don’t HAVE money to spend if it’s not on essentials. So there’s got to be a balance, I think, between recognizing what we could do differently to improve conversions, and recognizing the reality of our audiences.
Next, define the architecture of your information on your blog. Decide what categories you need to include on it and what tags are necessary. However, back it up with solid research first so that categories and tags are not a mere result of your expectations and preference, but they correspond to your primary keywords and follow your content strategy.

Always make affiliate links nofollow. Google’s goal is to provide its users with the best possible search results to their search queries. One of the main ways they figure out which webpages are the best is through links. The Google bots crawl the web, reading text. When they come to a link, it’s like an open door. They follow the link (walk through the door) and explore the site you linked to.


2nd tier.  If you are an affiliate for a particular program and you refer others to sign up for that affiliate program, a 2nd tier program will pay you when the affiliates you referred make sales. For example, I am an affiliate for Ultimate Bundles. If you join their affiliate program via my 2nd tier affiliate link here. I will get a small percentage of any sales you make going forward.
Calling all fashion bloggers. Reward Style is connected with a broad reach of fashion brands and retailers. The site offers an invitation-only monetization platform for top-tier digital style influencers and brands. Thousands of fashion bloggers and influencers are using Reward Style to maximise the financial success of their content, whether it’s on blogs, social media or mobile platforms.

This is my first comment on your blog and I am really impressed by the quality of the content! You said that Amazon is famous but it’s complex and I agree with you upon that. As a beginner, I don’t think it’s a good idea to join complex affiliate programs. I recently published an infographic about affiliate marketing sats (https://www.earnyfy.com/affiliate-marketing-stats-2016) amazon was not the list of top affiliate networks used by affiliate marketers. I think Clickbank is good for the beginner. And another I think liked is that telling people that it’s not as easy as it sounds. Most people think making money is really and when they know the truth they call it a scam and give up.
Thank you Kyle for the encouraging post, it got me pumped with excitement. Of course, as a blind man I know more and more disabled individuals are hungry for these awesome opportunities and they will go where it is possible for them to make things happen, so I truly hope WA will move to the top as a viable option for this growing sector. I know as I grow within this community I will be better prepared to help other like myself, and I am counting on the whole team as well. Cheers!
Disclosure of Material Connection: Some of the links on this page above are “affiliate links.” This means if you click on the link and purchase the item, I will receive an affiliate commission. Regardless, I only recommend products or services I use personally and believe will add value to my readers. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”
Access more than a hundred courses on various aspects of affiliate marketing and related domains on Skillshare, by simply subscribing to the platform for nearly zero cost. The best part is that you are not charged until a few months, so you can test things out and cancel subscription at any point if you want. The courses here include techniques on how to drive traffic to your website for free, how to use Instagram for promoting offers, how to set up an Affiliate Business and a lot more.
Okay, I’ll be honest, when I first started out, I found it surprisingly difficult to understand how to even generate links (and deep links). For a while, I legitimately thought I was stupid. In hindsight, stupidity may have been a small part of the cause, but the truth is the process is actually pretty confusing. SO, I’ve written some pretty boring (though helpful) step-by-steps on how to generate links on a few common programs and affiliate networks… So, for my fellow life-dummies, here’s:
Take advantage of affiliate program freebies when available. Many affiliate programs provide free printables, guides, webinars or other lead magnets designed to get potential customers in their sales funnel. As an affiliate, you can share these freebies with your audience using your affiliate link so if they eventually make a purchase, you’ll earn a commission, but if they don’t they still get value upfront.
List three to five types of products you would like to market. Depending upon the business model you chose, you may decide to market products you enjoy or you may decide to market only products that have the most profit potential for your affiliate business. Limit yourself to just a few products in the beginning so that you don't become overwhelmed.

An elegantly straightforward process, affiliate marketing via reviews, blogs, social media, and other platforms is a new frontier in marketing that’s just waiting to be utilized. Follow the tips included in this article, and you’ll be able to engage your audience, convert passive readers into active consumers, and enhance your paycheck one click at a time.
MaxBounty works exclusively with digital products, usually about giving one’s email or signing up for a newsletter. MaxBounty has CPA, Pay-per-call, and CPL campaigns that you can choose from. MaxBounty is involved in a large number of verticals, including market research, real estate, social games, finance, dating, and diet, but is primarily designed for marketers seeking to acquire new leads.
Win-win-win. The advertiser wins because they only pay when a purchase is made (as opposed to the shotgun approach of paying to advertise to the masses and waiting for a small percentage to actually buy). The affiliate wins because they make money while providing helpful advice. The customer wins because they get a trusted recommendation for something they might not otherwise have known about.
Why should you read this book? This book shows you that everyone has a personal brand whether they recognize it or not. This A to Z guide provides you with 26 lessons on how to successfully develop your personal brand. The authors provide an actionable roadmap for developing your personal brand and accelerating your professional success. Whether you are an entrepreneur, a business leader or a marketer, this book provides you with insights from professionals who are reaping the rewards from their successful personal branding efforts.
8Binary offers any level trader the opportunity to use market leading trading platforms to manage risk and maximize profits. With a truly global reach and renowned customer service, 8Binary is a secure and safe way to trade Binary Options. Committed to offering all of its clients the safest and most user-friendly experience, 8Binary is the trusted name in the market. Whether you are a beginner, retail investor or a professional trading entity, 8Binary guarantees the best user experience possible.

Okay, I’ll be honest, when I first started out, I found it surprisingly difficult to understand how to even generate links (and deep links). For a while, I legitimately thought I was stupid. In hindsight, stupidity may have been a small part of the cause, but the truth is the process is actually pretty confusing. SO, I’ve written some pretty boring (though helpful) step-by-steps on how to generate links on a few common programs and affiliate networks… So, for my fellow life-dummies, here’s:
This is the standard affiliate marketing structure. In this program, the merchant pays the affiliate a percentage of the sale price of the product after the consumer purchases the product as a result of the affiliate’s marketing strategies. In other words, the affiliate must actually get the investor to invest in the product before they are compensated.

Great article as it gets me thinking about the various ways to monetize my sites. With that said, my biggest hurdle has been how to get started building traffic. You see articles all over the net talking about massive traffic techniques, but I’ve never really found a guide for a fresh blog/website and how to get to their first 100, 500, or 1,000 daily uniques. Of course writing consistent quality content is key, but writing alone an audience does not make. Any tips or articles to point us to? Thanks again Sean!
Check out:  the roundup of monthly income reports. This is probably the most exciting feature we’ve drawn your attention to across all these blogs.  Every month, Matthew does a report on 15-20 different blogs and tracks their monthly revenue with a short write up about what’s been happening. It’s super interesting and covers an extremely broad range - from those losing $60 per month to one making $100,000! It’s incredibly inspiring for anyone interested in earning money online so make sure you really do check this one out.
Hi, Nice article. I am not sure about the process though. I can understand, finding a niche. But, when it comes to affiliate programs I get a little lost. Would I be promoting someone else's products? If so, no problem. I know I need to research high end products with gravity, are these products ones in certain stores, or companies, etc.?? If so, do I need to get permissions to be on an affiliate program with that company? Also, if it is products with a company, then how do I offer promotions on their products since they are not mine? Thank you, Nanette Vlahusich
Establish a vibrant affiliate program that pinpoints which personas your goods or services will want most. Perhaps you want your affiliate team to have an air of exclusivity; in this case, you’ll need to reach out to thought leaders who fit certain niches. On the other hand, you may want to initiate an internetwide affiliate program like Amazon, which has paid off beautifully for the online retail giant. With more than 900,000 affiliates representing 1.2 percent of available websites, Amazon has solidified itself as a large-scale affiliate leader. 

Once you've protected your prospecting pool, maximize your affiliate program by working with the best and leaving the rest. As the old 80/20 adage implies, most of your revenue will come from a very small percentage of your affiliates. Because it can be time-consuming to manage a larger affiliate network, consider selecting only a few companies initially, and interview them before signing them on. Affiliates are an extension of your sales force and represent your online brand, so choose partners carefully.

Affiliate marketing may seem so easy but in fact, it has its challenges especially because it involves money. Challenges are present both for the ones recruiting affiliates (giving affiliate programs) and from the affiliates themselves. In this last part of the article, we will be enumerating to you the problems that involve in the whole affiliate marketing field or phase. You can also read event marketing plan templates.


Having the awareness that you can earn and inspire more by finding easier ways to do things is called being smart. Knowing other job options in which one can still have the energy to work on is smart. Having a stable job and at the same time doing part-time which you know you could handle and that pays well is smart. Money has been a priority for some as the means for survival but not a lot earn what they deserve. They have to go through a lot of years of experience just to have a raise and often, it isn’t enough. One way to earn passive income is to be an affiliate in a company or business. You may also see international marketing plans.
Find a program — As we discussed earlier, many affiliate marketers find their merchants, vendors, or brands through affiliate programs. It’s important you determine your niche prior to finding a program, as some programs are geared toward certain types of products. If you’re interested in a particular affiliate program, look into what kinds of products it offers and whether it has any data on the success of its affiliates.  

Wow, great ideas! I never thought to link to a candle! My blog is about diabetes so I’ve never thought to link to common things I use daily but that’s genius! I love how she added the candle at the end as a side note almost. I guess I’ve never thought to look on Amazon for candles because I go to Bath and Body Works for those. I’m updating my best posts today! Plus I’m going to do some Pinterest posts for my affiliate number for your book which is a GREAT book!
The advantages of the affiliate marketing business model for the affiliate are quite obvious to anyone. Having the opportunity to effectively ‘sell stock’ without having any of the costs or responsibilities of manufacturing, buying or storing it is very liberating. In addition to this, when working with a high-paying network like MoreNiche, the profit potential is enormous.

I found the course extremely helpful especially as i am a beginner. Lisa is excellent at explaining which is important when you are starting out. She has made me understand the importance of finding the right niche and that to me is where most of us go wrong. I am extremely grateful for a course like this and would like to take this opportunity to thank you Lisa for creating a course that helps others! – Michelle


There are "gurus" and programs that suggest affiliate marketing is a set-it-and-forget-it system to turn the Internet into a cash machine. While affiliate marketing can be done part-time, it's not automatic. It requires research and a plan. For this home business idea to succeed, you have to know and understand your target market and continue to do things to reach them so they can click on your affiliate links.
As a newbie, the helpful components from this article is to know the process of affiliate marketing. If you just rush off and join any old affiliate network without due preparation chances are you’re going to be stat above is from the iab opm study (april 2017), which is one of several highlighted in my introduction to affiliate marketing, a tactic that not only delivers good roi, but can be considerably better at driving ecommerce sales, subscriptions and other conversions than display not every affiliate marketing program will deliver the same return on investment and not all those sales will be incremental. Your chronological order helps a newbie to understand the beginning steps to get started in an online business.
Another something I discovered at the end of last year that I can’t rave about enough is Easy Product Displays. (And if, ahem, you want to use my affiliate link it’s: http://easyproductdisplays.com?ref=t2hmkr-119) It’s a service that’s about $6/month, made to help make it super-simple to code nice-looking image displays of affiliate products. It works fabulously, but the reason I REALLY love it is that even if you don’t want to use the display part, it makes it about 1000 times easier to find Amazon product links with your affiliate code already built in. I often use it just for searching for those, because it’s so much faster than Amazon itself.
Next, define the architecture of your information on your blog. Decide what categories you need to include on it and what tags are necessary. However, back it up with solid research first so that categories and tags are not a mere result of your expectations and preference, but they correspond to your primary keywords and follow your content strategy.
Well, how’d we do with our 2018 List of the 6 Best Affiliate Marketing Books For Beginners and lets not forget the 2 for helping your affiliate site rank. Let’s us know what you thought in the comments below, just try to keep it PG for the younger folks reading about Honest Online Money’s Best Books For Learning How To Do Affiliate Marketing In 2018.
Before I share the strategies that I’ve used to generate over $100,000 in affiliate commissions per month at this point, there are two extremely important rules I use when promoting products that are not my own. You don’t have to use these rules in order to become an affiliate or be successful at it, but it’s what has helped me grow my affiliate income tremendously over the last couple of years:
Ooh that makes sense! Yeah, surname would probably be a big one. I’ve also heard that they keep tabs on any old addresses you’ve registered and if the address is the same as someone buying from you, then that doesn’t count either. I can’t imagine they’d be able to know who ALL your friends are, but a good thing to be mindful of! When I first started I thought, hey, why not just make a FB post and tell everyone to buy off me? haha then I realized maybe it’s not that simple.
It’s quite amazing how I keep stumbling on fresh information every day even with my expertise. This is indeed a great piece! Unfortunately, it would have been a lot more useful to me when I was starting out a few years ago. I should probably check out some of these Affiliate programs that I’m yet to join. It could add a few extra bucks to my earnings, who knows? Coincidentally, I actually just published a comprehensive tutorial on this a few days ago…… 

The revenues will come from the commissions from product listings placed on the Company’s websites. As stated in the executive summary, Management anticipates that commissions for successful referred product sales will be 40% to 60%. At the onset of operations the business will also develop a relationship with Google AdSense so that the business can immediately generate revenue. Each time a visiting user clicks on one of the advertisements for the business, the Company receives a payment from Google. These ads will be tastefully placed throughout the Affiliate Marketing Website’s platform. The Company, in time, may also intends to develop its own internal advertising programs that will feature static advertisements within the website. These advertisements will be sold directly to advertisers rather than through a third party system, like Google AdSense.
Don’t go too broad — Earlier, we mentioned that a benefit of affiliate marketing is that affiliates get to choose the products they sell. Because affiliates are building out their brands, they shouldn’t cast their nets too wide. There are affiliate opportunities for everything you can think of: technology, fashion, health, fitness, and even dog training. If you’re trying to get into affiliate marketing, try and stay relatively within a certain niche.
I really like the idea of a hybrid store. It just makes sense. Sell products that are generic and can be drop shipped or white label a product you are able to source. Then add some complimentary programs or courses through affiliate marketing that compliment your products. Like fitness. Sell fitness gear or clothes and have a diet plan and cook books etc that are affiliate. Just makes sense to me.
If you find that the psychology of crowds, social movements and how trends get started is interesting to you, Malcolm Gladwell’s The Tipping Point has several big interesting insights into how these things happen and the anatomy of social trends. A couple key points is that there are always ‘early adopters’ that spread the fire to a broader range of influencers who spread ideas and trends to the general public; ‘stickiness factors‘ such as association and aesthetics help things gain traction; and that context is key if something is going to catch on – it has to come at the right time and place.

Cookie life (the time in which you get credit for an affiliate commission) are typically better than Amazon as well through other affiliate programs and networks. Some like Wealthy Affiliate, offer affiliates LIFETIME cookies, meaning you get a commission if someone goes through your affiliate link and joins at any time, forever. Compare this to shorter cycle cookies like Amazon (which are only 24 hours).


Shopify has three different account types as well as standalone third-party products like themes and apps. Commissions are paid for sales of any of these products, including users who sign up for a 14-day free trial and then convert to a paid account. Shopify also has a wide range of blog posts, webinars, and video tutorials that can be linked to with the standard commission paid on any sales that are generated.
That being said, LinkConnector’s platform looks and feels outdated and is rather clumsily designed. Their dashboard also makes it difficult to find “hot” products or compare conversion rates, leaving affiliates somewhat in the dark about which products to choose. Ironically, despite their low-quality website, they offer some of the best customer service in the affiliate space.
2. The Affiliate – This is as described before, someone who related or attached to the organization or by this case, the merchant. Affiliates can sometimes rage from a single to a group of individuals. The affiliates would try to attract and persuade potential people in the market to value the product or service you are trying to promote. You may also like business marketing plan templates.

Ah, my favourite section. SO, by now, you guys should know that I hate crappy advice. Wellll, I feel like the Internet really let me down with affiliate marketing, because there’s so many small considerations and details that people rarely mention in the beginner guides. SO, here are some sad truths to be wary of (that I had to learn the hard way):
Niche — Unless you’re Amazon, people don’t come to your site looking to buy both weed-wackers and moisturizing cream. Most websites have their products narrowed down to a specific genre, such as fashion, health, petcare, etc. If you’re wanting to go into affiliate marketing, your first plan of action is to determine what you’re selling. This step comes first because so many subsequent decisions depend on this answer. The type of website you make, the type of audience with which you engage, all of these are heavily influenced by your niche. If you’re having trouble deciding where to focus, do some introspective thinking to determine what you’re passionate about.
The actual process of ensuring that affiliate links are being implemented by the publishers alongside adequate tracking methods is crucial to an affiliate marketing campaign. We investigate how much effort is placed into the process of acquiring affiliates and advertisers. In addition, we find it important to understand how much time is spent by the affiliate marketing company in creating strategic campaigns for their affiliates.

I wish I could give more than 5 stars because this course deserves more stars. I have learned a lot by taking this course. I was able to complete two websites making them look half way decent because I used what was taught to create the websites in a matter of days. I still have to add content to the website but I was able to accomplish more by taking this course than I have by taking other courses. I really felt like I accomplished something by taking this course. I plan to watch it again several times. This course is great for anyone wanting to build a website. The website does not have to be an affiliate website. I advise everyone to use the same theme that he uses in the course. I will take more of his courses for sure. – Latoya Simmons
The products and services you will be promoting to your audience must be relevant and good quality. Make sure you believe in them and know everything about them, because this will be crucial to you delivering the sales pitch to your audience. You need to build trust with your audience so make sure the products and services you choose to promote are trustworthy enough. 
Jaaxy have the answer as long we do it alright and proper according to all data provided, right application towards structure, placement, audience, and few more, even from small to the big segmented area we can capitalise. And I decided to go for new, medium and small segment area while buy my time a bit, let say in gaming niche I decided to pursue by learning and gaining few more knowledge and sources.
One tip can help: On every page where you post a link mention the name of the merchant somewhere on the page. It can be as part of the referral comment, like “You can find one of these XXXX products at my partner, Amazon.com.” This allows you to search your site for the product name + the merchant’s name and find all the links in the site that need to be removed or changed. When you get to where you have hundreds of pages with affiliate links on them, you need such a system to manage your links.
Hey Cliff, building a successful, informative blog is a whole (massive) topic to tackle in itself 🙂 My tips here are more meant for beginner/intermediate bloggers who are seeking to monetize their existing blogs through affiliate marketing. if you’re looking for blogging advice though, there’s plenty on the Blogging section of my site here: https://happytowander.com/category/blogging/ Hope that helps!
Hi Jamie! Thank you for the great information. I just learned about affiliate marketing last week. The source however, is an older couple who work for World Wide Dreams Builders (WWDB). So, basically Amway. After researching a bit. I have no interest in WWDB and. (It sounds like years of recruiting people with minimal payout) Though, I am highly intrigued by e-commerce and affiliate marketing. Before your post the company I recognized was Amazon. Can you please tell me if that will be the best 1st step. I am currently an unemployed student Veteran. So plan to fully emerge into this business regime and would greatly appreciate your advice on this!!!
Now that you’ve decided on a niche and affiliate network, you probably have a good idea of the products you’re going to feature on your affiliate site. Before you go on a publishing spree, make sure you create a workable strategy and put it on writing. This doesn’t have to be perfect, since you can adjust it as you go along, but it makes a whole lot of difference if you follow some sort of guide.
Even though I say that “content is not the only king“, by gosh it is dam important! If you haven’t got the information that your visitor wants then you can kiss your affiliate commissions goodbye. Excellent content is the main ingredient in your sale process so never just slap any old content up. See this article showing what I think quality content is.

If instant gratification is your thing, affiliate marketing will make you want to run into a wall. Even after you surpass the threshold needed to “cash out”, there’s usually a waiting period before your commission is confirmed/approved, simply because they allow time for people to return goods if needed. So yes, affiliate marketing is by no means a fast track to cash.
Affiliate marketing may seem so easy but in fact, it has its challenges especially because it involves money. Challenges are present both for the ones recruiting affiliates (giving affiliate programs) and from the affiliates themselves. In this last part of the article, we will be enumerating to you the problems that involve in the whole affiliate marketing field or phase. You can also read event marketing plan templates. 

When recommended affiliate marketing companies, we believe it is important for the affiliate marketing company to have access to a large network of publishers and affiliates. Not only does there need to be a volume of a variety of advertisers and publishers, there needs to be a variety of different industries being represented with enough volume to ensure there are matching publishers for the interested affiliates.
There is no shortage of products you’ll be able to promote. You’ll have the ability to pick and choose products that you personally believe in, so make sure that your campaigns center around truly valuable products that consumers will enjoy. You’ll achieve an impressive conversion rate while simultaneously establishing the reliability of your personal brand.
Contact the company directly. If you use a product or service and want to recommend it but you can’t find evidence of an affiliate program, consider approaching them and asking if they are willing to set one up (maybe with your help). Highlight your audience and the value of your recommendation. Explain that an affiliate program is simply rewarding happy customers (you!) for promoting, and they don’t have to pay until a sale is made.
Unfortunately, the 2Checkout dashboard is a bit limited in scope, making it difficult to get any metrics on conversion rates or even sorting by commission payouts. The workaround is to go to the Avangate store, which does list their best-selling products, and then search for these on the affiliate dashboard. That being said, 2Checkout does offer products from more than 4,000 different vendors, making it the leading affiliate network for software and digital products.
Melissa!! Reaching through the computer to hug you right now. I used to use affiliate links a lot, but had gotten away from it because they weren’t worth all the extra effort. I logged in to my Google Affiliate account after reading this post and found $138!!!! waiting for me. Thank you so much! Maybe I should update a few of my links and old posts!
A panel of 30+ global affiliate marketing experts  have compiled this list of best affiliate marketing course, training, program, classes and tutorials available online for 2018. More than 25,000 professionals have benefited from this compilation, hope you do too. These include courses around Clickbank, Amazon, Instagram and multiple other platforms.
Hi Melissa, I am really enjoying your Blog, and would like to get into Affiliate Marketing. The problem is I just can’t seem to get them on my Blog. I seem to be the only one to have this problem. I’ve searched for an answer, with no success. I must be the only one out there that can not figure this out. Could you possibly help? Please tell me how this is done. Thank so much, Donna
Don’t go insane and join a million at once… think first about what would make sense for you to endorse. If you’re a travel blogger for instance, becoming an affiliate for hotels, tours and travel gear may be appropriate. Most companies will have an affiliate program, or be part of an affiliate network. Your best bet would be a quick Google: “company + affiliate program”.
Let no one tell you that email marketing is dead. An email list is crucial for every affiliate marketer. You can start building up your email list with a lead magnet (like the information products mentioned previously) or even just by encouraging your audience to sign up for your updates. You can then push your content to this audience via email and also direct them to your affiliate offers. Don't be sleazy about the sales, but if you build up enough trust with your email audience; when the time comes, they will not mind purchasing a product from you. 
A lot of people don’t realize this, but you can’t just become an affiliate – it’s a process that requires an application. Even once you’re part of an affiliate network, you’ll still need to apply for individual brands within those networks. There are times when you’ll be declined… usually there’s a reason why (lol like that time I applied to hundreds of clothing retailers in anticipation for all the packing lists that I still have not written). Other times, you’ll feel like a good fit and they’ll reject you anyway. That’s the way this cookie crumbles, so remember to put a little effort into your applications and really pick companies that fit your blog.
Before I share the strategies that I’ve used to generate over $100,000 in affiliate commissions per month at this point, there are two extremely important rules I use when promoting products that are not my own. You don’t have to use these rules in order to become an affiliate or be successful at it, but it’s what has helped me grow my affiliate income tremendously over the last couple of years:

Russell Brunson teaches you how to turn leads into qualified subscribers. The strategy then goes into turning those subscribers into buyers and teaches you how to identify hyperactive buyers to build your business around them. This approach allows you to build a business as an affiliate rather than giving away your leads and customers to merchants.
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